A Quick Guide to the 6 Principles of Persuasion

Everyone should know Robert Cialdini’s classic principles of persuasion. Here is a quick guide explaining what they are and how to use them.

I remember the first time I read Robert Cialdini’s revolutionary book, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. I was absolutely amazed by the subtle yet powerful principles that influence you, me, and everyone in between. Like magic, these principles persuade us to do things we would never dream of doing. Unless you want to blindly be “influenced” by these strange forces, I suggest you quickly get up to speed with the 6 Principles of Persuasion that guide human behavior—the knowledge will serve you well.

1. Reciprocity

It was early December, and my wife and I were assembling our annual list of holiday card recipients. Inevitably, we found ourselves with more recipients than cards. A quick visit to Shutterfly’s website gave us the bad news: we wouldn’t be able to get additional cards in time for Christmas. We needed to decide which names to take off our list, and the exercise consisted of me asking my wife the same question multiple times: Did (insert name here) send us a card last year? If the answer was no, then the name was fair game for removal. But if the answer was yes, and they did in fact send us a card last year, then their name stayed on the list and we sent them a card.

This is an example of the first principle of influence: Reciprocity. The principle states that people are obliged to give back to others in the form of a behavior, a gift or a service that they received first.

When a friend invites you to their party, you feel compelled to invite them to a future party of yours. If a buddy does a favor for you, then you feel you owe that buddy a favor in the future. In regard to a social commitment, individuals are much more likely to say yes to the people whom they owe.

So if you want to leverage the Principle of Reciprocity, be the first to give, and make sure that what you give is personalized and unexpected.

2. Scarcity

This principle relates closely to the law of supply and demand. We all know that when you reduce supply, demand goes up—that is because the fewer there are of something, the more people desire them. You’ve seen this principle in action when marketers motivate us with warnings like “Offer ends tomorrow!” and “Only three left!” Potentially losing something before we’ve even had a chance to possess it drives us to action.

On April 10, 2003, British Airways announced that they would retire the London-New York Concorde flight later that year. They cited low passenger numbers and rising maintenance costs as the trigger, and an interesting thing happened the day after the announcement: Sales (no pun intended) took off!

Nothing about the flight itself had changed—it was the same price, same flight time, same crew and same service. The only difference was that just overnight, it had become a scarce resource. And as a result, people wanted it more. A lot more.

So, if you want to persuade via the Principle of Scarcity, it’s not enough to only showcase the values and benefits of your offer or solution: you need to also make sure that everyone understands what they stand to lose if they fail to act now.

3. Authority

The Principle of Authority states that people prefer to follow the lead of a credible and knowledgeable person: officials, professors, doctors and other experts in various fields. As an example, a person is more likely to give change for a parking meter to a complete stranger if the person requesting the money is wearing a uniform rather than regular clothing.

In the 1960s, psychologist Stanley Milgram directed a study that showed subjects were so deferential to an individual wearing a lab coat (the “authority”) that they were willing to torture an unseen individual with electric shock. Unbeknownst to the subjects, the experiments were staged, and no one was actually harmed in the experiment. Milgram concluded that “It is the extreme willingness of adults to go to almost any lengths on the command of an authority that constitutes the chief finding of the study.” Translation: The Principle of Authority is in full effect.

If you want to be successful when applying this principle, make sure you’ve convinced others that you are a credible, knowledgeable figure of authority before you attempt to influence them.

4. Consistency

The Principle of Consistency is most fascinating to me. Once you understand it, you will see it in action on a regular basis with people you know and love. The principle states that people have a strong desire to be consistent with the things they have previously said or done. Experiments have proven that if a person performs even just a trivial favor for someone, they are far more likely to perform a much bigger favor in the future.

In one famous study, researchers found that very few homeowners were willing to erect an unsightly wooden board on their front lawn to support a Drive Safely campaign for their neighborhood. However, by leveraging the Principle of Consistency, the researchers were able to get four times as many homeowners to erect this unsightly board. But how did they do it?

Ten days earlier, homeowners had agreed to place a small postcard in the front window of their homes that signaled their support for the campaign. The small card was their initial commitment, which then led to a 400% increase in a much bigger commitment—the unsightly wooden board. Why? Because of their need to be consistent.

The Principle of Consistency thrives in another familiar place: politics. Turn on FOX News and CNN and you are sure to see some irrational views based on consistency rather than logic.

If you want to be influential by using the Principle of Consistency, start by having people perform small, voluntary commitments, and then leverage them to take on larger, more substantial commitments moving forward.

5. Liking

The Principle of Liking states that people prefer to say yes to those that they like, which begs the question: What causes a person to like someone? The science of persuasion tells us that there are three important factors: we like people who are similar to us; we like people who pay us compliments; and we like people who collaborate with us towards a mutual goal.

It’s no surprise that many salespeople are friendly and affable—their livelihood depends on it! They understand that the closer they can align themselves with the customer, the better chance they have to get a sale.

In a series of negotiation studies carried out between MBA students at two well-known business schools, one group was informed that “Time is money. Get a deal done as soon as possible.” In this group, around 55% were able to come to an agreement.

A second group, however, was told, “Before you begin negotiating, exchange some personal information with each other. Identify a similarity you have in common and then begin negotiating.” In this group, 90% of them were able to come to successful and agreeable outcomes.

So to master the Principle of Liking, find common ground between you and your “target.” Expose these similarities, include a genuine compliment or two, and you will pave the way for increased success.

FYI: Another book that explores this topic in more detail is Dale Carnegie’s timeless classic, How to Win Friends and Influence People.

6. Consensus

The Principle of Consensus, also known as “Social Proof”, states that when people are unsure how to act in certain situations, they tend to look to others to see how they should respond.

The next time you hear a laugh track during your favorite sitcom, you are experiencing the manipulative power of Consensus. Studies show that people find shows funnier when they hear other people laugh, even when that laughter is known to be fake.

One troubling aspect of Consensus/Social Proof is a phenomenon known as the “bystander effect”. The bystander effect occurs when the presence of other people discourages a person from helping in an emergency situation. People in a crowd tend to look towards the behavior of others when determining if and how to act. Studies show that the more people present when something goes wrong, the less likely it is that anyone will help.

If you want to harness the Principle of Consensus, there is no need to rely on your own ability to persuade others. Instead, find testimonials, endorsements, and social media posts that support your message and your target will find comfort in following the crowd.

The 6 Principles of Persuasion Are Now in Your Hands!

So there you have it—the 6 universal Principles of Persuasion. What will you do with this new-found information? Will you leverage these principles to become an influential force? Or merely use this knowledge to defend against them being used on you? Please let us know by leaving a comment below.  Thank you!


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14 Insightful Books That Will Help You Crush it Before Year’s End!

These ground-breaking books will help the ambitious professional achieve their personal and professional goals.

It’s that time of year

The end of the year is a crazy time for most professionals.  The final sprint to reach both your personal and professional goals can be quite a challenge.  If this sounds like you then you’ve come to the right place!  We’ve got a bunch of insightful books that will help you finish the year strong.

For the last month I have reviewed countless newspapers, magazines, and websites in my quest to find THE quintessential list of insightful books for the ambitious professional. With sources such as Publishers Weekly, USA Today, the New York Times and the Washington Post, you can rest assured that the following list of 14 is the best of the best.

Now go crush it!

So if you’re looking for a little advantage as you close out the year – put on your comfy jammies, settle into your comfy chair, and expand your mind with the books below.  Don’t be surprised if your W-2 gets a lift as well!

Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don't by Jim Collins. Peppered with dozens of stories and examples from the great and not so great, the book offers a well-reasoned road map to excellence that any organization would do well to consider.
Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are by Seth Stephens-Davidowitz. Move over Freakonomics. Move over Moneyball. This brilliant book is the best demonstration yet of how big data plus cleverness can illuminate and then move the world.
Lead and Disrupt: How to Solve the Innovator's Dilemma by O'Reilly and Tushman. One of the perennial puzzles in business is how established companies can maintain their core while simultaneously pursuing new growth. This book provides an insightful perspective on the important role leadership can play in solving that puzzle.
Captivate: The Science of Succeeding with People by Vanessa Van Edwards. This book shares shortcuts, systems, and secrets for taking charge of your interactions at work, at home, and in any social situation. These aren’t the people skills you learned in school. This is the first comprehensive, science backed, real life manual on how to captivate anyone — and a completely new approach to building connections.
The Captain Class: The Hidden Force That Creates the World's Greatest Teams by Sam Walker. Told through riveting accounts of some of the most pressure-soaked moments in sports history this book doesn’t just bring these events to life; it presents a fresh, counterintuitive take on leadership that can be applied to a wide spectrum of competitive disciplines.
Insight by Tasha Eurich. Through stories of people who’ve made dramatic gains in self-awareness, this book offers surprising secrets, techniques and strategies to help the reader do the same – and how to use this insight to be more fulfilled, confident, and successful in life and in work.
Barking Up the Wrong Tree by Eric Barker. Much of the advice we’ve been told about achievement is logical, earnest… and downright wrong. In this book, the author reveals the extraordinary science behind what actually determines success and most importantly, how anyone can achieve it.
Hit Makers: The Science of Popularity in an Age of Distraction by Derek Thompson. This book puts pop culture under the lens of science to investigate what every business, every artist, every person looking to promote themselves and their work is after: what makes a hit a hit.
Give and Take: Why Helping Others Drives Our Success by Adam Grant. A fascinating read that shows why giving is the real secret to getting ahead. This landmark book opens up an approach to success that has the power to transform not just individuals and groups, but entire organizations and communities.
The New Rules of Work: The Modern Playbook for Navigating Your Career by Cavoulacos and Minshew. Whether you are starting out in your career, looking to advance, navigating a mid-career shift, or anywhere in between, this is the book you need to thrive in the New World of Work.
Contagious: Why Things Catch On by Jonah Berger. Why do some ideas seemingly spread overnight, while others disappear? How can some products become ubiquitous, while others never gain traction? Jonah Berger knows the answers, and if you read this book - you will too!
Pause: Harnessing the Life-Changing Power of Giving Yourself a Break by Rachael O'Meara. Sometimes life throws you for a loop. Your impulse might be to lean in and tough it out, but what you may really need to do is take a step back. Reassess your life with a clear head and dive back in with purpose and poise. In this enlightening book, Rachael O’Meara guides you through the steps of your own pause journey.
Popular: The Power of Likability in a Status-Obsessed World by Mitch Prinstein. In this book, a leading psychologist examines how our popularity affects our success, our relationships, and our happiness — and why we don’t always want to be the most popular.
Keep It Simple: Unclutter Your Mind to Uncomplicate Your Life by Joe Calloway. We live in a world that becomes more complex everyday, and cluttered processes and complications are the enemies of control in your life and your business. But with simplification and focus as your pillars, this book teaches you how to take charge of your goals and your life.

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8 Reasons Why it Pays to Have Happy Employees

New findings show that when companies focus on keeping their employees happy they get better production and increase their chances of success.

Growing up I was constantly told that if I wanted to be happy I needed to work hard and become successful.  But with recent discoveries in the field of positive psychology, I am happy to announce that the old-school “formula for success” is backward! Contrary to this long-established opinion – new findings show that when you focus on being happy first – you are in a much better position to find more success!  In other words – happy employees bring about success rather than success bringing about happy employees.

Full disclosure, the inspiration for this post is Shawn Achor and his book, The Happiness Advantage.  After reading his book I was committed to spreading this message to my family, friends, business colleagues – and yes – my online followers as well.  I specifically decided to apply these new findings to an area that could benefit greatly from it – and that area is the workplace!

Armed with my new-found interest, I wanted to uncover ways in which this new mode of thinking could benefit both employee AND employer.  Could it actually benefit a company if its employees were happier?  I am more confident than ever that the answer to that question is a resounding yes!  And to prove it – I have assembled a list of 8 reasons why it pays to be happy at work:

1. Being happy at work makes you more productive

In 2015 a study was conducted in England by the Social Market Foundation and the University of Warwick’s Centre for Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy.  The study set out to understand the link between happiness and productivity in the workplace.  Their findings – happy employees were 12-20% more productive than their unhappy counterparts. This is fairly dramatic, as the study also points out that in regard to GPD and economic growth – an increase of just 3% is considered very large.

2. Happy employees are more creative

There have been several studies that have found a link between happiness and creative output.  In one such study out of the University of Toronto, psychologist Adam Anderson explains, “With positive mood, you actually get more access to things you would normally ignore. Instead of looking through a porthole, you have a landscape or panoramic view of the world.”  His conclusion – creative output increases with happiness.  In another study, creativity researcher Dr. Shelley Carson observed, “Increases in positive mood broaden attention and allow us to see more possible solutions to solve creative problems.”

3. Happy employees make more money

Barry Staw, a business professor at the University of California-Berkeley, conducted an interesting study where he and his colleagues measured the initial level of positive emotions in several hundred employees and then analyzed their job performance over the next 18 months. Their findings – those who were happier at the outset ended up receiving better performance evaluations and higher pay. It stands to reason that happy, satisfied workers are more likely to achieve better job outcomes because they’re more engaged and invested in what they’re doing.  In another study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers found that people who report higher life satisfaction as adolescents earn significantly higher levels of income later in life.  The adolescents that reported to be “very happy” earned 10% more than the average income, while those who were “profoundly unhappy” made about 30% less than the average.

4. Happy employees are more effective leaders

Dana Joseph, Ph.D., at the University of Central Florida, consolidated 25 different studies on leadership to conclude that the trait that contributes the most to a leader’s success is “positivity.”  What Joseph coined as “trait positivity” (the general tendency to respond positively to situations) was the best predictor for effective leadership.  “Positive affect allows [leaders] to be inspirational, motivational, and respectful of their followers,” says Joseph. “For example, when you’re giving a speech to a room and you have difficulty being positive, it’s difficult to inspire and motivate the audience.”  So, for hiring managers trying to predict which individual will be an effective leader, they should place greater importance on candidates’ overall happiness levels.

5. Happy salespeople outsell their counterparts by 20-40%

In the mid 80’s MetLife’s CEO John J. Creedon was concerned with the high turnover rate of their sales staff. So much so that he approached psychologist Doctor Martin Seligman at the University of Pennsylvania and asked him to test a theory on the importance of optimism in people’s success – in this case, his salespeople.  Seligman tracked thousands of MetLife sales reps who had taken two tests during the hiring process.  One test was the standard screening test for new employees, the other was a unique test created by Dr. Seligman to measure the amount of “optimism” in a new hire.  Two years later Seligman compared sales results against his original test and found something remarkable: reps who scored in the top half for “optimism” sold 37% more insurance than those “pessimists” in the bottom half. In November of 1997 HR Magazine reported, “Met Life then changed its hiring practices to include screening candidates for optimism. In less than two years, the company had more success hiring agents, expanded its sales force . . . and increased its market share of the personal insurance market by 50%.”

6. Happy employees are better at handling stress

Sonja Lyubomirsky, Professor at UC Riverside, has devoted much of her life to what she calls “the science of happiness.” She’s written many books on the subject, including The How of Happiness and The Myths of Happiness. In a 2007 research paper, she and two other researchers (Howell & Kern) explored the connection between happiness and health.  Their conclusion – that well-being can “directly bolster immune functioning and buffer the impact of stress.”  Mary Steinhardt is a professor of Health Behavior and Health Education in the College of Education at The University of Texas. She, too, believes that happy people are better at handling stress.  In a paper she published in June of 2014 in the journal Stress and Health she writes, “[My belief] is that positive emotions open us up and help people use a broader range of coping strategies.  It might not matter as much at low stress, where people can handle it, but at high stress, you want to be able to adapt to adversity.”

7. Happy employees provide better service and earn more profits for their organizations

In 2012, Gallup conducted its 8th customer engagement meta-analysis – combining 263 research studies across 192 organizations in 49 industries and 34 countries. The Gallup researchers studied the difference between engaged (happy) and disengaged (unhappy) workers – 1.4 million to be exact.  They measured these workers based on 49,928 work units.  What did they find?  Work units in the top quartile in employee engagement (happy) outperformed bottom-quartile units (unhappy) by 10% on customer ratings, 22% in profitability, and 21% in productivity. Work units in the top quartile also saw significantly lower turnover (25% in high-turnover organizations, 65% in low-turnover organizations), shrinkage (28%), and absenteeism (37%) and fewer safety incidents (48%), patient safety incidents (41%), and quality defects (41%).  Daniel Goleman, internationally known psychologist and author of the best-seller “Emotional Intelligence” has also studied the effect of “engagement” on the bottom line.  In his book “Primal Leadership” Goleman refers to a 2002 study that shows for every 2% increase in the “service climate” (ie employee happiness), revenue grew by 1%.

8. Happy employees are healthier

In 2008 Gallup released a global health study that quantified the average cost of an unhappy employee. They take significantly more sick leave, staying home an average of 1.25 days more a month than their happy counterparts. That equates to 15 extra sick days per year.  In 2010, Columbia University Medical Center researchers published a study on the link between positive emotion and coronary heart disease.  Their findings – people who are “generally upbeat, enthusiastic, and content” have less risk of developing heart disease than those who are not. David A Snowdon, professor of neurology at the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging at the University of Kentucky, conducted a longitudinal study on aging and Alzheimer’s disease and concluded that sisters who were happy lived longer—in some cases as much as 10 years—than sisters who displayed less positive emotions.

So there you have it folks.  The next time you’re feeling down and you head to work with a frown on your face – remember – that’s bad for business!

Stay positive people!

Want to learn more about the power of Happiness?

For more insightful business books – check out this post from yours truly!

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What Makes it a Cognitive System?

The adherence to these four important traits: Understanding, Reasoning, Learning, and Interaction.

Let’s face it, the terms “artificial intelligence” and “machine learning” have become ubiquitous – as have the myriad of companies and organizations that claim they have harnessed these capabilities to the benefit of business and society. Several companies use the word “cognitive” to describe a solution, system, or technology that leverages AI.  Innovative companies are exploring ways they can leverage a cognitive system to provide insights that accelerate business value to their customers, partners, and suppliers.

How do we define a cognitive system?

There are scores of articles and blogs that have outlined the incredible benefits of a “cognitive system”, but the question that often goes unanswered is what makes it cognitive?  In my line of work, it seems to be a term that is thrown around quite a bit. Label it “cognitive” and it garners interest.  “Cognitive” is transformational and promises greater impact and a higher price tag. It is for this reason that we need to come up with a definition of the term.  Once defined you will know when the term has been used properly – and when it has not.  This newfound understanding will serve you well as you navigate the current and future AI landscape.  So here goes – a cognitive system is marked by its ability to understand, reason, learn and interact.


A cognitive system can understand vast amounts of information in all forms – the same way that human beings do. Picture a wearable such as an Apple Watch or a Fitbit that collects data about your activity level, sleep quality, and caloric intake.   A cognitive system can gather all that data from you as an individual, combine it with other systems of record and those of a greater population, and then build a model that understands the correlation between your daily activities and your overall health.


A cognitive system can grasp underlying concepts, form hypotheses, and provide inferences to extract ideas and recommendations.  Imagine a solution for marketers that recommends prioritized target audiences based on key behavioral drivers culled from vast amounts of historical and real-time data. Other recommendations could include cross-sell/up-sell opportunities and next best action.


A cognitive system connects each data point, interaction and outcome to help continuously sharpen its expertise.  It literally learns by experience; that is, based on specific training, the system will adapt to new or unexpected events.  I’m a big fantasy football fan.  Imagine a cognitive system that sorts through a wealth of data: football statistics, news reports, social media comments, weather reports, and more to provide real-time insights that change based on future events and results.


A cognitive system can see, talk and hear – allowing it to interact with humans in a natural way.  No longer dependent on code or a programming language – cognitive systems understand natural language.  We call this natural language processing – or NLP.  This is not an easy endeavor.  Human speech is not always precise – it tends to be ambiguous and its structure can depend on many complex variables such as slang, regional dialects and social context. Thanks to NLP, cognitive systems not only understand the words being said, but they understand the meaning of these words in context. They simulate the human ability to understand the everyday language that people use to communicate.  This natural interaction can extend beyond speech to include visual inputs as well.  A good example is IBM’s Watson Visual Recognition service, a cognitive system that understands the contents of images. A visual process tags the image, finds human faces, approximates age and gender, and can find similar objects in a collection. This service can also be trained to create custom capabilities like detecting clothing type in retail, identifying defective parts on an assembly line, and much much more.

So there you have it.  Now you know what makes a cognitive system – it’s ability to understand, reason, learn and interact.  When you combine all these components, the resulting system can be quite impressive.  A futuristic use case could be a cognitive car that:

  • Monitors a driver’s health (understands).
  • Identifies an emergency based on subtle changes in driver vital signs (learns).
  • Initiates a conversation with the driver (interacts); and
  • Makes recommendations for next best action (reasons) – one of which could be self-driving the car to the closest hospital.

As crazy as that sounds – this future is closer than you think – thanks to the power of the cognitive system!

For more information on the cognitive system: The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World

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This Journey Begins Now

The most profound blogging sites begin with a single post…

A great journey lies ahead – at least I hope it’s great.  It’s as if I’m waiting at a quiet airport terminal before a monumental flight.  But unlike my previous trips to the airport – I have no idea where this flight is headed.  I have a sense of where it may go – but part of me is excited at the possibility of the unexpected.  My family and friends are tired of me talking about this new “trip” – but thankfully I have finally done something about it! (Thank you WordPress for making it easy)

Thus begins my online chronicles.

(I must admit – that sounds WAY better than “blog”!)

I venture to guess that as the posts accumulate (and I do hope they accumulate) they will take on all different forms.  As a business leader in the world of cognitive solutions – I suspect I will have my fair share of posts in and around that subject.  As a huge proponent of positive psychology, I anticipate some posts of that variety.  And finally – as a proud dad, husband, brother, son, friend, and coworker – I should have plenty more topics to discuss.

The question is will I set aside the time to make this happen.

Time will tell.

But for now – I’m excited to finally board this plane!